gergili çelik kafes direğinin Analizi çevresel yüklere maruz

Dört ayaklı köşebent / tüp iletişim kuleleri
Ocak 12, 2019
Teknik Özellikler Haberleşme kulede Kuralları
Ocak 21, 2019

gergili çelik kafes direğinin Analizi çevresel yüklere maruz

gergili çelik kafes direğinin Analizi çevresel yüklere maruz

Çelik kafes direkler yüksek katlı inşaat alanında en verimli yük taşıyan yapılar arasında yer. Bir gergili çelik kafes direğin non-lineer analizi SAP kullanılarak yürütülür 2000 farklı buz kalınlık değerleri için sonlu eleman programı 1500 yüksekliği m. Geometrik model ve haç tanımlandıktan sonra- kesit özellikleri, Çeşitli yük kombinasyonları incelendiğinde. En sonunda, rüzgar hızı- Buz kalınlığı ilişkisi elde edilmektedir, ve yapı dayanabileceği maksimum rüzgar hızı, buz farklı kalınlıklarda için belirlenir.

  1. Giriş

Lattice mast is a general name for different kinds of steel masts.A lattice mast or truss mast is a freestanding framework mast. These structures can be used as transmission masts especially for

voltages of more than 100 kilovolttur, as radio masts (self-radiating masts or carriers for aerials), or as observation masts for safety purposes. Big and heavy frame sections are not required in these

masts. This is why they are lighter than other mast types, and the modules can easily be connected to one another.

Steel lattice masts have been used for many years in the countries where the ice and wind loads are considerable. This is due to increasing demands of modern industry with regard to communication and energy. There are different styles of masts on which small wind generators are mounted: freestanding, guyed lattice, and tilt-up. Freestanding masts are relatively heavy duty, and they stay upright without the help of guy cables. Guyed lattice masts use guy cables to anchor the mast and keep it upright using a relatively small quantity of concrete. Cables stretch from three points near the top of the mast to the ground at some distance from the base of the mast. These constructions are quite light compared to freestanding masts, and therefore constitute the least expensive means for supporting a wind turbine. ancak, they require a larger area to accommodate the guy cables.

The technical efficiency and durability of steel lattice masts have increased in recent years. The behaviour of steel lattice masts has been investigated in literature. As the design procedure is significant in these masts, the structural analysis is related to the geometrical model and section properties. Böylece, the module production and assembly steps, and economic costs, are directly related to the design of masts. Steel lattice masts on land are vulnerable structures. They are mostly affected by environmental loading. Wind loads are the most effective design criteria for these structures. ancak, the ice effect must also be taken into consideration, especially at high elevations. In cold regions, these two effects are combined. bu nedenle, the relationship between the wind and ice must be investigated by conducting proper finite-element analyses to avoid the collapse of such structures. In this paper, the non linear analysis of a guyed steel lattice mast 80 m in height is performed using the SAP 2000 program. While the model is constituted according to TS 648 load conditions are taken from TS 498. The altitude of the structure is taken to be 1500 m, and the snow region IV is adopted, which is the most conservative option. Böylece, the analysis can also be used for other snow regions. The structure was first analysed without any ice effect. Afterwards, the ice thickness was gradually increased, and the relationship between the wind speed and ice thickness was determined.

  1. Materialand method

Proper sections and angles of the steel lattice mast are first determined. Afterwards, the three dimensional finite element model is given in Figure 1. Top view of the model is presented

in Figure 2. Face sections of the model, showing the distances with angles, are shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4.

şekil 1. 3-D model

 

şekil 2. Üst görünüm

 

 

şekil 3. bir ve B yüz bölümler

 

 

şekil 4. C yüz Bölüm

tablo 1. Malzeme özellikleri

Malzeme

tip

gerilme

gücü

[MPa]

Verim

gücü

[MPa]

St52 (S355)

510

360

tablo 2. Bölüm özellikleri

üye

tip

Bölüm

tip

Boyutu

[mm]

sütun

üyeler

Boru

48×7

Dikey

üyeler

dairesel

16

Diyagonal

üyeler

dairesel

16

Guy members

dairesel

16

tablo 3 yüksekliğe göre Rüzgar hızı ve yükler

Yükseklik

[m]

rüzgar hız

v

[MS]

rüzgar yük

“q”

2

[kg/m ]

0-8

28

50

8-20

36

80

20-80

46

130

A module 3015 mm in length is made of steel members. Columns are placed at an angle of 900 to the ground. Vertical steel members connect columns to one another, and are placed vertically with respect to the columns. Diagonal members are placed by definite angles to the columns, and they also connect the columns to one another. A column with diagonal and vertical members that constitute the module, are shown in Figure 5.

 

şekil 5. modül üyeler

Guy members and modules are named according to the total height from the ground level. The guy and section numbers, with related heights, are presented in Figure 6.

tablo 4. Yükseklik ve kar özellikleri

rakım

[m]

Kar

bölge

Kar yük qs

2

[kg/m ]

1500

IV

176

tablo 5. buz özellikleri

Ağırlık in birim hacim

[kN / mm ]

7

Var 26 kafes direk modüller. Sütun, dikey,ve modülün her iki yüzüne diyagonal üye shownin Şekil olan 7. etkileyen Pozitif ve negatif rüzgar yön
Modül ayrıca Şekilde sunulmaktadır.

tablo 6 kesit özellikleri

 

üye

 

Bölüm

tip

Bölüm

boyutu

[mm]

Bölüm

çevre

[santimetre]

Bölüm

alan

2

[santimetre ]

sütun

Boru

48×7

15.08

9.02

Dikey

dairesel

16

5.03

2.01

Diyagonal

dairesel

16

5.03

2.01

Adam

dairesel

16

5.03

2.01

sütun

Boru

48×7

15.08

9.02

Dikey

dairesel

16

5.03

2.01

Diyagonal

dairesel

16

5.03

2.01

Adam

dairesel

16

5.03

2.01

sütun

Boru

48×7

15.08

9.02

Dikey

dairesel

16

5.03

2.01

Diyagonal

dairesel

16

5.03

2.01

Adam

dairesel

16

5.03

2.01

sütun

Boru

48×7

15.08

9.02

Dikey

dairesel

16

5.03

2.01

Diyagonal

dairesel

16

5.03

2.01

Adam

dairesel

16

5.03

2.01

 

 

Load combinations used in the analysis are given in Eqn (1) and Eqn (2) as follows. The combinations are constituted by Snow loads, ice loads according to ice thickness values,

and wind loads effecting different heights of the lattice mast with wind speeds are given in Table 7.

 

üye

Kar

yük

2

[kg/m ]

Dağıtılmış

kar yük

[kg/m]

buz

kalınlığı

[mm]

Dağıtılmış

ice yük

[kg/m]

rüzgar

hız

[km / s]

rüzgar yük göre için yükseklik

[kg/m]

0-8 m

8-20 m

20-80 m

sütun

 

176

-

 

30

5.15

 

209

12.18

19.49

26.81

Dikey

üye

4.42

3.03

4.06

6.50

8.94

Diyagonal

üye

4.42

3.03

4.06

6.50

8.94

Adam

4.42

3.03

4.06

6.50

8.94

sütun

 

176

-

 

20

2.99

 

217

12.63

20.21

27.79

Dikey

üye

4.42

1.58

4.21

6.74

9.26

Diyagonal

üye

4.42

1.58

4.21

6.74

9.26

Adam

4.42

1.58

4.21

6.74

9.26

sütun

 

176

-

 

10

1.28

 

223

12.96

20.73

28.50

Dikey

üye

4.42

0.57

4.32

6.91

9.50

Diyagonal

üye

4.42

0.57

4.32

6.91

9.50

Adam

4.42

0.57

4.32

6.91

9.50

sütun

 

176

-

 

0

-

 

226

13.14

21.03

28.92

Dikey

üye

4.42

-

4.38

7.01

9.64

Diyagonal

üye

4.42

-

4.38

7.01

9.64

Adam

4.42

-

4.38

7.01

9.64

yük etkileri üye yanlamasına. Dağıtılmış kar yükü üyelerinin üst yüzey alanını dikkate alınarak hesaplanır.

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